Vision and Learning

According to the American Optometric Association (AOA), up to 80% of a child's learning in school is through vision.

Vision and Learning Infographic

References

The Hidden Link Between Vision and Learning: Why Millions of Learning-Disabled Children are Misdiagnosed by Wendy Beth Rosen

Impact at least 5 million children:

Borsting E, Rouse M, Deland P, Hovett S, Kimura D, Park M, et al. Association of symptoms and convergence and accommodative insufficiency in school-age children. Optometry. 2003;74:25-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12539890

Rouse M, Borsting E, Hyman L, Hussein M, Cotter S, Flynn M, et al. Frequency of convergence insufficiency among fifth and sixth graders. Optom Vis Sci. 1999;76:643-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10498006

Eye coordination problems can be mistaken for ADHD:

Borsting, E., M. Rouse and R. Chu (2005). "Measuring ADHD behaviors in children with symptomatic accommodative dysfunction or convergence insufficiency: a preliminary study." Optometry 76: 588-592. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16230274

Borsting, E., G. L. Mitchell, L. E. Arnold, M. Sheiman, C. Chase, M. Kulp, S. Cotter and C. R. Group (2013). "Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated With Convergence Insufficiency in Children: An Open Trial." J Atten Disord. http://jad.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/11/22/1087054713511528

Granet DB, Gomi CF, Ventura R and Miller-Scholte A (2005). "The relationship between convergence insufficiency and ADHD." Strabismus 13: 163-168. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16361187

Vision problems can block learning:

Barnhardt C, Cotter SA, Mitchell GL, Scheiman M, Kulp MT. Symptoms in children with convergence insufficiency: before and after treatment. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89(10):1512-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922781

Rouse M, Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Kulp M, Scheiman M, Amster D, et al. Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD. Opt Vis Sci. 2009;86:1169-77. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19741558

Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Kulp MT, Scheiman M, Amster DM, Cotter S, et al. Improvement in academic behaviors after successful treatment of convergence insufficiency. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89(1):12-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22080400

Eye coordination and focusing problems are treatable:

Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group. Randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1336-49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18852411

Sterner B, Abrahamsson M, Sjostrom A. The effects of accommodative facility training on a group of children with impaired relative accommodation--a comparison between dioptric treatment and sham treatment. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). 2001;21(6):470-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11727875

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