There have been many kinds of eye exercises claiming to treat a wide variety of vision disorders. Many worked, but many turned out to be useless for improving vision. This can make it difficult to understand which eye exercises are evidence-based treatment, and which are not supported by the current evidence.
The Bates Method was one of the first popular eye exercise routines. It claimed to be able to cure the need for eye glasses by changing the shape of the eye. That claim turned out to be false. Since then, many other treatments have appeared, each with varying levels of theoretical and scientific support.
Convergence insufficiency has been shown to respond to specific kinds of eye exercises, including pencil pushups. PEDIG demonstrated that the optimal treatment is a combination of in-office and at-home therapy.